Home Prism How Ramayana fired the imagination of Urdu poets – Prism

How Ramayana fired the imagination of Urdu poets – Prism

How Ramayana fired the imagination of Urdu poets - Prism

There is a great deal of Urdu poetry about the various incidents mentioned in the epic.

A scene of Ramayana. Paris, musée Guimet – musée national des Arts asiatiques. MA2765 – Richard Lambert

The epics are read on multiple levels; The many stories contained within an epic can be "broken down" and interpreted in different ways, to suit a variety of purposes and at the same time maintain the overall integrity of the wider poetic history.

In the case of Ramayana, although it is mainly a religious text that describes the life of Ram, the Prince of the Kosalas, his 14-year-old exile, the various dramatis personae that he knows during his stay in the jungles, his trip to distant Lanka in search of his wife who has been kidnapped by Raavan, and his eventual and triumphant return home to Ayodhya, Ram's history and personality are full of meanings and meanings.

Claiming Ram

Both a religious figure and an icon of morality, the character of Maryada Purushottam Ram, the so-called man & # 39; perfect & # 39 ;, the embodiment of goodness and & # 39; virility & # 39; and everything that symbolizes honor, chivalry and goodness, has taken over the imagination of The poet and creative writer of different Indian languages ​​for millennia. His story has been told and told in different ways, in multiple languages ​​and dialects.

The Urdu poet and writer is no exception. While a large number of Ramayana in itself they have been written in Urdu, both in verse and prose, there is a great deal of Urdu poetry about the various incidents mentioned in the epic, which are first said to have been written by Valmiki, the main characters mentioned in the story, as well as several that deal specifically with Shri Ram himself.

– Photos of the author

Of the many poems about the main protagonist of the many Ram Kathas that have emerged over the centuries, "Ram" of Dr. Muhammad Iqbal is remarkable. Full of love and respect for "Ram-e Hind," whose name is a badge of honor for the people of Hind, he claims Ram in unequivocal terms, as someone whom every Indian is proud of:

Labrez hai sharaab-e haqiqat se jaam-e Hind
Sab falsafi hain khitta-e maghrib ke Ram-e Hind

(Hind's cup is filled with the wine of reality
All Western philosophers are taken by Ram de Hind)

Similarly, "Ram" by Saghar Nizami is committed to honoring and loving Ram's legacy, without making a distinction between the followers of Hinduism and the people of Hind who have the same reasons to love and respect him:

Zindagi Ki Rooh Thha Roohaniyat Ki Sham Thha
Woh mujassam roop mein insaan ke irfaan thha

(It was the spirit of life and the candle of spirituality
In the form of a human, he was incarnate Knowledge)

Hind's "culture" is embodied in Sita, Lakshman and Ram

Then there is & # 39; Sri Ram Chandar & # 39; of Zafar Ali Khan, a prolific poet now lost in the veils of time, but in his age he had his finger on the pulse of the nation, wrote on a variety of topics and was an influential editor of a newspaper Urdu. Here, by showing himself eloquently about the many excellent qualities of Shri Ram Chandar, and the message embodied in his life, he says that Hind's "culture" is embodied in Sita, Lakshman and Ram:

Naqsh-e tehzeeb-e Hunood abhi numaya hai agar
Woh Sita hai Lachman hai aur Ram se hai

(If there are signs of the culture of Hinduism
Then they are for Sita, Lachman and Ram)

Ramayan ka eik Scene by Brij Narain Chakbast is one of the most beloved and cited Urdu poetry pieces. This long poem shows Raja Ram Chandar saying goodbye to his parents, especially the touching moment of leaving his mother, Kaushalya.

Inspired so much by him soz Y marsiya tradition that had flourished in the Awadh region as per the many accounts of the Ram Katha In popular tradition, the poem is full of poetic images of a son, a son & # 39; ideal & # 39; very dear, who says goodbye to his mother while embarking on a journey of honor and commitment, without taking anything from his princely home. the blessings of his mother and the assurance that as long as he has the grace and favor of the Almighty, even the desert can be as favorable as the presence of a mother.

Uska karam shareek hai to gham nahii
Daamaan-e dasht daaman-e maadar se kam nahii

(If one has His divine blessings, one cannot know the pain
The edge of the desert is not less than the edge of a mother)

An account without prejudice of "Sita-Haran"

Certain incidents of the Ramayana It triggered the imagination of the poet and the creative writer more than others. As well as exile and stay in the jungle or ban-bas (spelled as banwas) became a metaphor for all kinds of wanderings in strange lands and all kinds of difficulties, as well as the kidnapping of Sita by Raavan, his crossing of & # 39; Lakshman Rekha & # 39; and the notion of & # 39; a stain in the honor of a woman & # 39; that kidnapping has always been destined for a woman.

In "Sita Haran", by Munshi Banwari Lal Shola, we see a fairly conventional narration of events:

  • from Sita watching the golden deer
  • to fall in love with its beauty (its magnificent horns and hooves) that is narrated in great detail
  • of the entrapment planned by the cunning Raavan
  • de Lakshman first telling Sita he can't hurt Ram, but finally he went in search of his brother after ordering Sita to stay safe within the confines of the conjugal home
  • of Raavan appearing disguised as a hungry Brahman looking for alms
  • and the simple and kind Sita out of the limit drawn by Lakshman to feed the hungry fakir.

The poem is notable for its completely nonjudgmental tone and a sequential, although poetic, account of events.

Bahar jo kundli se chaliin dhoka khaa gayii
Raavan Ke Chhal Mein Hai Maharani AA Gayii

(The moment she left the circle she was caught
Hai, the queen was deceived by Raavan's deception)

We know about Sita. What about Urmila?

Another poem, titled "Ram" by Rahbar Jaunpuri, while listing the many good qualities, including his love for peace, harmony and truth, tells us why the land of Hindustan is proud of him.

By walking the path of loyalty, Ram has become a lasting symbol of self-sacrifice just as Raavan has come to embody the ‘shar-pasand’, Those who like evil.

Rasm-o-rivaaj-e Ram is aari hain shar-pasand
Raavan Ki Nitiyon Ke Pujari Hain Shar-Pasand

(Those who like evil lack Ram's traditions
They are the worshipers of Raavan's practices)

Occasionally, it is the "smaller" stories of lesser-known characters that take over the poetic imagination. Sita, who accompanied her husband and brother-in-law in exile, abandoning the luxuries of the royal palace, is one of the main dramatis personae, but what about Urmila, Lakshman's wife and Sita's younger sister?

Like Sita, she also wanted to accompany her husband, but Lakshman asked her to stay and take care of her old parents. She agreed, but at what cost? "Urmila", by a contemporary poet, Tripurari, tells this unknown story and asks if Urmila's sacrifice was less.

Using a modern and everyday language, and an inquisitive, natural and unaffected tone, she seems to wonder how this young woman of flesh and blood, prone to the human impulses of the body, would have faced these sterile 14 years of forced separation from her husband?

… Magar woh Urmila ko chhod kar bhai ke pichhe shawl
Koi tadapti aarzu si
Urmila ke honth gir kar
Kai tukdon mein niche farsh par bikhri hui thi …

An elegy for the "death" of India that was

That the epics can be read on multiple levels, including the political one, is evident in the painful, touching, but deeply political. Doosra Banwas by Kaifi Azmi, both an elegy for the death of an India that was, an India that always allowed differences to coexist, but received a blow to the body on December 6, 1992.

the nazm represents Lord Ram, returning home from exile in the jungle, to find the raqs-e divangi (the dance of madness) in the courtyard of his house in Ayodhya, the blood stains on the banks of the Sarju River and their reaction to the demolition of the masjid That, according to the poet, would have been unequivocal. He would have felt as if he had been banished a second time, because such a city, full of hate, could not have been his home.

Ram banbaas se jab lautke ghar men aaye
Yaad jangal bahut aaya jo nagar men aaye
Raqs-e-divangi aangan mein jo dekha hoga
Chhe December ko Shri Ram ne socha hoga
Itne divane kahan look ghar men aaye
Jagmagate the jahaan Ram ke qadmon ke nishan
Pyaar Ki Kahkashan Leti Thi Angdaii Jahaan
Morh nafrat ke usi rahguzar men aaye
Dharm kya un ka thaa, kya zaat thii, ye jaanta kaun
Ghar na jalta to unhein raat men pahchanta kaun
Ghar Jalane Ko Mira Log Jo Ghar Men AA
Shakahari, the simple dum tumhare ḳhanjar
Tum ne Babar ki taraf phenke the saare patthar
Hai look sar ki ḳhata, zaḳhm jo sar mein aaye
Paanv Sarju mein abhi Ram ne dhoye bhi naa thhe
Ki nazar aaye vahan ḳhuun ke gahre dhabbe
Paanv dhoye bina Sarju ke kinare se uthe
Ram ye kahte hue apne dvare se uthe
Rajdhani ki faza aaii nahin raas mujhe
Chhe December ko mila doosra banbas mujhe


The article was first published in The Quint and has been reproduced with permission.

Source: https://www.dawn.com/news/1512302/how-ramayana-fired-the-imagination-of-urdu-poets

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